In this tutorial, we are going to learn about Best Tutorial on Basic Electrical Topics.

Below are common topics for electrical engineering.

- Current
- Voltage
- Resistance
- Electric Power
- Power Efficiency
- Energy Efficiency

**Current**–- It is the rate of flow of electric charge in electrical filed, generally in electrical circuit.
- Current is same as it like using water pipe analogy, the electrical current as water which flow in a pipe.
- The current is measured in ampere.

I = dQ/dT

Here is the I is the current in amps (A).

Q is the electric charge in coulombs (C).

T is the time in second (s).

Types of Current – As per below image can see there is metal where the charge carriers (electron) are negative.

- Conventional Current – It is defined as moving in the same direction as the positive (holes) charge flow.
- Electrical Current. – It is defined as moving in the same direction as the negative (electrons) charge flow.

**Electrical Voltage – **

- It is defined as electrical potential difference between two points of an electrical field.
- The voltage is measured in Volts (v).
- Example like that using water pipe analogy, we can visualize the voltage as height difference which makes the water flow down.
- In an electrical circuit, the electrical voltage V is equal to the energy consumption E divided by the electric charge Q.

V = E/Q

Here V is the voltage measured in volts (V).

E is the energy measured in joules (J).

Q is the electric charge measured in coulombs (C).

V_{AB
}= Q_{2 }– Q_{1 }

**Resistance –**

The resistance of a conductor is resistivity of the conductor’s material times the conductor’s length divided by the conductor’s cross sectional area.

R = ϸ x L/A

R is the resistance in ohms (Ὠ).

ϸ is the resistivity in ohm – meter (Ὠ x m).

L is the length of the conductor in meter (m).

A is the cross sectional area of the conduction in square meters.

**Electric Power – **

The electric power P is the equal to the energy consumption E divided by the consumption time t.

P = E/t

P is the electric power in watt (W).

E is the energy consumption in joule (J).

T is time in seconds (S).

**Electric Power Calculation Formula:**

P = VXI

P = I^{2 }X R

P = V^{2 }/ R

P is the electric power in watt (W).

V is the voltage in volts (V).

I is the current in amp (A).

R is resistance in ohms (Ὠ).

**Electrical Power Efficiency – **

Power Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the output power divided by the input power:

η = 100. P_{OUT} /
P_{IN }

η is the Efficiency in percent (%).

P_{IN }is the input
power consumption in watts (W).

P_{OUT }is the
output power consumption in watts (W).

**Energy Efficiency –**

It is defined as the ratio of the output energy divided by input energy:

η = 100.
E_{OUT} / E_{IN}

η is the Efficiency in percent (%).

E_{IN }is the input
energy consumed in joule (J).

E_{OUT }is the output
energy consumed in joule (J).