In this tutorial, we are going to learn about Best Tutorial on Capacitor
Capacitor – It is known as that permitted is a passive two terminal electrical component that stores electric energy in an electric field.
Below are the styles and materials of practical capacitors vary widely, but an contain at least two electrical conductors separated by an insulating layer.
Capacitor Use: Capacitor are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices.
Capacitor Working :
A Capacitor is a passive device that stores energy in its electric field and returns energy to the circuit whenever required. A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating metal on dielectric.
Electron flow negative to positive
Current flow positive to negative
In this below circuit for charging and discharging processes will perform in the capacitor.
When the capacitor is connected to a circuit with supply voltage source, two processes, which are called charging and discharging the capacitor will happen in specific conditions.
When we connect the key (K) in position (A), the capacitor is connected to the power supply and current flows through the circuit. Both the plates of the capacitor get the equal and opposite charges, that is +Q and –Q, and the potential difference Vc starts increasing while the capacitor is charging. Once the voltage at the terminals of the capacitor (Vc) is equal to the supply voltage, that is (V = Vc). The capacitor is fully charged and the current stops flowing through the circuit, this completes the charging phase. In the next step when we will replace the key (K) from position (A) to position (B), the capacitor will start discharging. When key (K) connects to position (B), Bulb will glow with high intensity of the bulb and voltage between the capacitor’s plates drops down gradually to zero, which completes the discharge phases.
Types of Capacitor :
Electrolyte Capacitor – Electrolyte capacitors are a types of capacitor that is polarized, They are able to offer high capacitance and typically above 1uF, and are most widely used for low frequency applications.
Ceramic Capacitor – The Ceramic Capacitor is a type of capacitor that is used in many application from audio to RF and value range from a few picofarads to around 0.1 microfarad.
Tantalum Capacitor – Tantalum capacitors are also polarized and offer a very high capacitance level for their volume. This type of capacitor must also not be subject to high ripple currents or voltages above their working voltage.
Silver Mica Capacitor – It is not widely used these days, but they still offer very high levels of stability, low loss, and accuracy where space is not an issue. They are primarily used for RF applications and they are limited to maximum values of 1000 pF or so.
Polystyrene Film Capacitor – They are tubular in shape resulting from the fact that the plate / dielectric sandwich is rolled together but this adds inductance limiting their frequency response to a few hundred KHZ. They are generally only available as leaded electronics components and it is used where cost is a consideration they do not offer a high tolerance.
Metalized Polystyrene Film Capacitor – This type of capacitor is essentially a form of polyester film
Polycarbonate Capacitor – It is very stable and enables high tolerance capacitors to be made which will hold their capacitance value over time. They have a low dissipation factor, and they remains stable over a wide temperature range, many being specified from -55o to +125o .
Polypropylene Capacitor – It is used for low frequencies, with 100 KHz or so being the upper limit. Glass Capacitor – These capacitors offer very high level or high performance in terms of extremely low loss, high RF current capability, no piezo – electric noise