Best Tutorial on IC (Integrated circuit)

In this tutorial, we are going to learn about IC (Integrated circuit).

IC (Integrated circuit) – Circuit in which circuit components like transistors, diodes, resistors is combine together to perform various function is called IC (Integrated circuit)

  • It is that circuit in which the circuit components such as resistor, capacitor, diode and transistor etc are automatically parts of a small S/C chip.
  • It means an integrated circuit consist of number of circuit components like – resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, transistor, logic gates etc. interconnection in single small package to perform a complete electronic function.
  • IC made by various components which are connected within small chip of S/C (silicon) material.
  • A thin slice of single crystal of silicon about 0.05 cm thick called silicon wafer.
  • The wafer may have diameter range 2.5 cm to 10 cm.
  • These wafers are used to make devices and IC.
  • A small portion of the silicon wafer is dimension 50 mil x 50 mil.
  • This small portion of the wafer is called silicon chip.
  • The area required for a resistor, diode and a transistor is of dimensions (12mil x 12 mil) (4.5 mil x 3 mil) and (6.5 mil x 4 mil).
  • The various circuit components such as resistor, capacitors, diode, and transistor and logic gate can be grown over such one silicon chip.
  • The technology used for the fabrication of IC is quite complicated but it is becoming cheaper due to large scale.

Fabrication Steps for IC:

Below are the process are involved in the fabrication of IC.

  • Lithography: It is the process for pattern definition by applying thin uniform layer of viscous liquid like photo-resist on the wafer surface.
  • Etching: In this process first selectively removing unwanted material from the surface of the wafer and in this process the pattern of the photo-resist is transferred to the wafer by means of etching agents.
  • Deposition: In this process the films of the various materials are applied on the wafer.
  • Chemical Mechanical Polishing: It is a planarization technique which by applying a chemical slurry with etchant agents to the wafer surface.
  • Oxidation: In this process oxygen it is dry oxidation) or HO it is wet oxidation which molecules convert silicon layers on top of the wafer to silicon dioxide.
  • Ion Implantation: Most widely used technique to introduce do pant impurities into semiconductor. The ionized particles are accelerated through an electrical field and targeted at the semiconductor wafer.
  • Diffusion: In this process a diffusion step ion implantation is used to anneal bombardment-induced lattice defects.

IC (Integrated circuit) Types:

SSI – Small Scale Integrated circuit

MSI – Medium Scale Integrated circuit

LSI – Large Scale Integrated circuit

VLSI – Very Large Scale Integrated circuit

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